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(C*+& • J INDEX 



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Barcode iNumber 

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020 534 713 6 
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020 534 714 8 

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020 534 717 3 

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020 534 718 5 

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31 



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11 



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X Collection 
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020 534 722 7 

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020 534 723 9 

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020 534 724 

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PUBLISHED BY ..HUNGARIAN BULLETIN' 

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FACTS AND FIGURES ON HUNGARY 



THE NEW HUNGARIAN ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCES 



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HUNGARIAN RAILWAYS 



AND 



TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY 



BY 



CORNEL de TOLNAY 



HUNGARIAN TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY LEAGUE. 
BUDAPEST, 1919. 



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THE QUESTION 

OF THE 

TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OE HUNGARY 

I'ROM THE 

STANDPOINT OE COMMERCIAL POLICY 






BY 






BARON WILLIAMS CERS 




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HUNGARIAN" TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY LEAGUE. 






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STRASBOURG-METZ ^Tf 
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property 



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LIGUE POUR LIHTE6RITE TERRITORIALE OE L* ROAGRIE 
BUDAPEST, 1919. 



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An United States *-om§ 



of Hungary ? 



The solution of the Hungarian problem. 



the author of « A plea advocating an United States 

of Hungary », « Austria-Hungary and the war » 

and other books. 

- I EEFElil 






M" 



GENEVA 

Printed by Albert Kundig 

1919 











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THE 

HISTORICAL RIGHT OF THE 
HUNGARIAN NATION TO ITS 
TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY 



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BY 



DR JOHN KARACSONYI 

MEANER OF THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 

Property oi 

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1920 



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RUMANIAN OCCUPATION: #\§\ 
MEMORANDUM ON THE 
MEMORIAL OF THE THREE 
BISHOPS OF TRANSYLVANIA 



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BY 



PROFESSOR WAMBAUGH 

^rfayi^ of the Law School, Harvard University 
Cambridge, U.S.A. 



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HUNGABIAN PEACE TEEATY 



(BRITISH STATESMEN ABOUT THE HUNGARIAN QUESTION) 




PUBLISHED 

BY 

THE POPULAR LITERARY SOCIETY 



IN 



BUDAPEST 




NEW YORK, N. Y, 
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BUDAPEST 

1921 



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Pvoi,srty of 
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NOTHING BUT THE TROTH 

A COMPENDIUM OF HISTORICAL, CULTURAL, 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND ECONOMICAL FACTS IN 

SUPPORT OF THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY 

OF HUNGARY 



BY 

GEORGE DE SZOGYENY LLD. 

LATE COMMISSIONER GENERAL TO THE LOUISIANA 
PURCHASE EXPOSITION 




BUDAPEST, 1921 
PRINTED BY THE PALLAS PRINTINO CO. LTD. 



VGARSAtf REFERENCE I. 

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Humanoram actuum 
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Cassiodorius. 





V. 



BUDAPEST, 1921. 
SOCIETA ANONIMA „I:LET" 

•HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 

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PUBLISHED BY 
THE ST. GERARD SOCIETY 




LONDON 1922 NEW-YORK 

LOW, W. DAWSON & SONS STEIOER & COM P. 

BUDAPEST 

FERDINAND PFE1FER (ZEIDLER BROTHERS) 



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1396N 

JUL 8 1953 



Hungarian 
Minorities in the Succession States. 

Synopsis of a speech delivered in the Hungarian House of Commons on 12th. 
December 1929 by Dr. Bela Kenez, Chairman of Finance Committee. 



In the Treaties which the Great Powers 
concluded wilh the so-called Succession States 
(Roumania, Czecho-Slovakia and Yougoslavia) 
at Paris and St. Germain in 1919, their Govern- 
ments undertook to apply the principles of 
liberty and justice to the Minorities both in 
regard to political and civil equality, in edu- 
cational and religious matters, as well as in the 
free use of their own language in public, pri- 
vate and business life. 



The Succession States are endeavouring by 
every possible means: 

1. to show an apparent decrease in the 

number of the Hungarian population. 

2. lo force the Hungarians to leave the 

country. 

3. to reduce the Hungarians to a state of 

poverty by over-taxation and confis- 
cation of property. 



In Roumania. 



The census returns are falsified, every per- 
son bearing a Roumanian, German, Serbian or 
Slovak name being put down as belonging to 
one or other of those races, even though they 
have spoken nothing but Hungarian for gene- 
rations. Hungarian Jews and Armenians are 
classified as separate Minorities. 

All Uniats as well as thousands of Roman 
Catholics are classed as Roumanians, in spite 
of the fact that there are scarcely any Rouma- 
nians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. 

The Roumanian statistics carefully avoid 
giving particulars of religious denominations, 
as a person's nationality can generally be de- 
termined according to his religion. 

According even lo the Roumanian statistics 
23% of the population of Transylvania are 
Hungarians. 

The official use of the Hungarian language 
in the law courts is forbidden, by Decree of the 
Minister of Justice. 

A new law passed by Maniu affords ample 
possibility for splitting up districts where 20% 
of the population are Hungarian, among Rou- 
manian districts, so that the right to the offi- 
cial use of the Hungarian language may be lost. 



Political rights are curtailed. 

At the elections of 1929 in Transylvania 
the Hungarians obtained 9 seats only out of 
184 — that is to say only one-sixth of the 
number to which their numerical strength 
entitled them. 

M. Pop Chicho, the present Speaker of the 
Roumanian Chamber, said in 1922: "The Hun- 
garians allowed us to vote openly for the Rou- 
manian nationalist parties; today whole villa- 
ges have been forbidden to vote at all and the 
gendarmes received orders to shoot down 
anyone approaching the ballot-boxes". 

In 1928 the Roumanian National Peasant 
Party declared as follows: "In theory we enjoy 
a constitutional life with universal suffrage 
and responsibility of the Cabinet Ministers. In 
reality the contents of the ballot-boxes have 
been tampered with, personal freedom has 
been outraged, the civil administration and offi- 
cers of justice have been employed as instru- 
ments of corruption and oppression at the 
elections." Signed by Mr. Maniu and five other 
members of Parliament who then became 
members of his Cabinet. 






HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 
Property of 

TWU! TTOBitlTT s^*-. 



At a recent meeting of the Czech Committee 
on foreign - affairs great consternation was 
expressed on this account. 

In Czecho-Slovakia the confiscation of 
newspapers is an every day affair. 



In 1928 there were 118 cases of confis- 
cation and during the last four years there 
have been 426, mostly of Hungarian publi- 
cations. * 



J 



In Yougoslavia. 



In the territories taken from Hungary 
•>0 x/ 2% of the population are Hungarian, i. e. 
more than 600.000, though according to You- 
goslav census returns there are 25 Vi % onlv, 
i. e. 180.000 fewer. 

Until 1927 the Hungarian minority was 
unable to elect a single member of Parliament. 

Education. 

In Yougoslavia 64 Hungarian primary 
schools have been closed during the last three 
years. There are no high schools whatever 
for the Hungarians. 

The Hungarian training college for teachers 
has not been opened this year and this Autumn 
89 Hungarian teachers and 
teachers have been dismissed. 



Kindergarten 



Land reform. 

In Yougoslavia the agrarian reform has not 
been initiated by Act of Parliament, but by 
virtue of an Order, the first paragraph of 
which states: "Those of Slav race only can 
enjoy the benefits of the agrarian reform". 

No Hungarian or German has received a 
single acre, but 785.000 acres of expropriated 
land have been distributed among dobrbvoljatz 
(insurgents, volunteers) . 

The Hungarian estates have been expro- 
priated. No Hungarian can acquire land; the 
former estate owners, however, must continue 
to pay the taxes on their expropriated land. 



The Yougoslav paper "Obzor", 14 Febru- 
ary, 1928, states that the yield of wheat has 
diminished by about 10 bushels per acre in 
consequence of the ignorance of the dobro- 
voljatz, the new owners. Other Serbian papers 
characterize the agrarian reform as "Bal- 
canism, barbarism, corruption, graft, the 
shame of Europe, etc.". 



Taxation. 

In pre-war Serbia the average tax is 510 
dinars per head or 21.000 dinars per square 
kilometre. 

In Syrmia and the Banat where Hungarians 
and Germans live 1349 dinars per head or 
91.000 dinars per square kilometre must be 
paid. 

Emigration. 

During the last seven years more than 
100.000 persons have emigrated (mostly over- 
seas) from Yougoslavia. 

Only 6.000 of these, however, came from 
Old Serbian territory. Of the 74.000 remain- 
ing, 70% came from Syrmia, the Banat and 
Croatia where there are Hungarians living in 
larger masses. The rate of emigration among 
Ihe Hungarians is almost five times higher 
than their percentage of the population. 

In all the Succession States, Hungarian 
songs, hymns and sermons, as well as the cele- 
bration af St. Stephen' Day, are forbidden. 



J 



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Victor Hornyanszlty Co. Ltd. Printer to the Royal Court. Hungary, Budapest. — 87,644. 



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HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 

i : j .riy of. 

THE LIBRAiS* OF CONGRESS 



a^DB ( v 



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by 

IVAN KOMOROCZY 

retired High -Sheriff 



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1933. 



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Published by the people of the Counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Ber«a 
temporarily united by public administration. 

HUNGARIAN REFES$NCE LIBIiAKY 
N^ Property of 

' *THE LIBRARY OP CONGRESS 




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PROKOPY IMRE: 



A REVIZlO ES 
DlLMAGYARORSZAG 




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HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 

Proper y of 

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

BUDAPEST, 1933 
KIADJA AZ ERDtLYI FERFIAK EGYESULETE 



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BUDAPEST, 1933 

KIADJA AZ ERDELYI F£RFIAK EGYESULETE 



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SITUATION OF THE 

MAGYAR MINORITIES 

ON THE TERRITORIES 
TORN FROM HUNGARY 



Speech delivered by Baron Sigismund Perenyi 
in the Hungarian Parliament on the 13th. May 1933. 



( «EW YORK, H, Y. "' 



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HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 
Property of 

TnE LIBRARY Off CONGRESS 

HUNGARIAN NATIONAL CONFEDERATION. 
BUDAPEST, 193 3. 



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— — "**©© I bo 
THE STRUGGLE FOR A JOST PeM* 949 



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SPEECH DELIVERED 

BY THE LATE 

COUNT ALBERT APPONYI 

PRESIDENT OF THE HUNGARIAN DELEGATION 
TO THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT PARIS, 
REFORE THE SUPREME COUNCIL 
AT ITS SESSION ON 16 th - JANUARY 1920 



HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 
Properly of 



THE 




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HUNGARIAN NATIONAL CONFEDERATION 
BUDAPEST 1988. 



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Discours du 

baron SIGISMOND PERENYI 
d&pute au Parlement hongrois 



SUR LA 

POLITIQUE MINORITAIRE 

DES 

ETATS SUCCESSEURS 



tenu a I'occasion de la discussion du budget, 
a la seance du 15 mai 1933 de la Chambre hongroise. 



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BUDAPEST, 1933 
FEDERATION NATIONALE HONGROISE 



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La Verite 



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Traits deTrianon 

vaut bien un quart d'heure 









« ffvs la f rontiire hongroise alt tti 
« quelqua peu arbltralrament flxie, 
< qui pour rait an douter ? » 








(A. BRIAND, Journal Officiel, 
dSbats parlementaires N° 82, 1921. 
page 2591) 
















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PARIS — 1933 




HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 








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L'HOMNE FATAL IE L'EIIROPE 



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« C'est U dentin 
qui bat Us cartes, 
macs c'est nous 
qui jouons». 

Schopenhauer. 



HUNGARIAN REFERENCE LIBRARY 

Pvo„erty of 

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

Chez l'Auteur 

103, avenue de la Bourdonnais, 103 

PARIS (vil*) 

1937 



$ 



NEW YORK, N. Y, 
UfiflARY 







HISTORIAN OR POLITICIAN? 



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BY 



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UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR /' 



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HUNGARIAN NATIONAL CONFEDERATION 



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London Hungarian Committee. K^l/lJ J \ "~ ■ 

THE WRONGS OF HUNGARY. #|f7 

1. Hungary is an ancient Constitutional Monarchy, which used to elect its Kings. Every new 
King was solemnly crowned with the crown of St. Stephen, after taking the Coronation Oath on 
Hungarian soil, in which he swore to uphold the Constitution. In the year 1687 the royalty 
was made hereditary in the famdy of Hapsburg; but, so far was Hungary from becoming a pro- 
vince of Austria, to this year not a single Austrian has been allowed to hold office in the Hun- 
garian kingdom. An Austrian is a foreigner in Hungarian law and practice. 

2. The kings of the house of Hapsburg have, notwithstanding, made various attempts to over- 
throw the liberties of Hungary. After repeated attempts to fuse Hungary into Austria, and re- 
peated insurrections, a long struggle begun by Leopold I. was ended in 1711 by Joseph I., who 
was constrained to confirm the old Constitution. Again, by the efforts of Joseph II. to enforce 
the German language, and suppress the municipalities, a revolt was kindled, which his successor 
Leopold II. finally pacified (in 1790) only by withdrawing all his brother's innovations, and by 
making a peculiarly distinct avowal, that (Art. 10) "Hungary with her appanages is a free king- 
dom, and in regard to her whole legal form of government, {including all the tribunals,) independent ; 
that is, entangled with no other kingdom or people ; but having her own peculiar consistence and 
constitution, accordingly to be governed by her legitimately crowned king after her peculiar laws 
and customs." Nevertheless Francis I. dared to violate his Coronation Oath by not assembling the 
Diet from 1811 to 1825. At last he was compelled to give way by the passive resistance to all 
government. From that year onward the Hungarians have struggled successfully for internal 
reforms by constitutional methods, though perpetually thwarted by the bigotry, ignorance and 
perverse ambition of the Austrian Cabinet or Crown. 

3. The internal reforms which they desired were chiefly the following :— To remove or lessen 
the distinctions between the privileged and unprivileged classes ; and improve the principles of 
taxation and of the tenure of land. — Next, to extend perfect toleration of religious creed to all. 
The high Magyar nobility are generally Roman Catholics ; yet they have been as willing to 
concede toleration as the lower nobility and middle classes, who are generally Protestants. — 
Thirdly, to establish Free Trade with all nations. For the Austrian Cabinet chose to confine 
this great country to Austria for its market, while treating Hungarian produce as foreign.— 
Fourthly, to maintain a Free Press, and the right especially of publishing the debates and pro- 
ceedings of the Diet.— Fifthly, in general, to develop the great resources of Hungary by all sorts 
of material improvement in agriculture, in roads, in bridges. To this of late has been added a 
struggle for General Education. 

4. One mode of resistance applied by Austria was, to extinguish Parliamentary Bills by the 
veto of the Crown; the fear of which paralyzed the Upper House,— a body always naturally 
disposed to lean to Austria. Against this, the Hungarians had no adequate constitutional 
weapon to use, since the Austrian Cabinet was not responsible to the Hungarian Diet. The 
often repeated legal declaration of their independence, and in particular the distinct compact of 
Leopold II. in 1790-91, justified them in desiring by peaceful and constitutional means to attain 
an independent ministry directly responsible to their own Parliament. 

5. Such a ministry had been long talked of and claimed in the Diet. In fact the Conserva- 
tive party and the Opposition had differed little as to the objects at which they aimed, but chiefly 
as to the vehemence with which they should press them ; the Conservatives pleading to "give tune" 
to the Austrian Cabinet. But in March 1848 the Conservatives, as a separate party, vanished, 

by the great mass of them acceding to the Opposition. Kossuth carried a unanimous Vote, that f 

the Constitution of Hungary could never be free from the eternal machinations of the Austrian 
Cabinet, until constitutional government was established in the foreign possessions of the Crown, 
so as to restore the legal status of the period at which the Diet freely conferred the royalty on 
the house of Hapsburg. This vote paralyzed the Austrian authorities. Vienna rose against 
Metternich, and a revolution took place there. A Constitution and a National Guard were 
enacted. The Hungarian Diet immediately claimed for itself also a responsible ministry. This 
was granted without delay, and Count Louis Batthyany was made Premier. But on the very 
same day, Mar. 15, Jellachich was appointed Ban of Croatia. In a letter to Vienna, dated Mar. 
24, 1848, the Archduke Stephen, viceroy of Hungary, is found to have suggested three modes 

^ HUNGARIAN FETi'ERENCE LIBRARY 
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HUNGARY. 



MEMORIAL TO LORD PALMERSTON. 



To the T'lscount Palmerston, Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 
THE Undersigned desire to express to your Lordship the profound interest which thev 
in common with the greater part of the inhabitants of Great Britain, have felt and still 
feel, in the great struggle which has been made by the Hungarian nation. 

The Undersigned have beheld in that struggle, not the irregular attempt of a 
dissatisfied party at the subversion of the state and of the existing order of things but 
the calm, dignified, and determined energy of a nation of Freemen, put forth to maintain 
the Constitution which they have inherited from their forefathers, and to preserve those 
Laws and Institutions of which they have long enjoyed the blessing and felt the benefit 
and under which continual progress was being made in national and individual welfare. 

The Undersigned could not but observe that, so long as this struggle lay between 
this nation and that power whose unlawful attempts forced upon them the appeal to arms 
they were able, although driven into the struggle unwillingly and wholly unprepared, 
to maintain their ground unshaken ; and that they thus proved to the world that, while 
they were unquestionably entitled, de jure, to the independent enjoyment of the Con- 
stitution and Laws and Liberties they claimed, they were fully able, unaided, to maintain 
that right de facto. 

The Undersigned observed with astonishment and with alarm that foreign inter- 
vention was asked, and was given, to overcome the efforts of the nation thus success- 
fully struggling against the unprovoked invaders of its Constitution, Laws, and Liberties. 

The Undersigned hailed with great satisfaction the declaration of your Lordship's 
own views upon this subject, as made in Parliament, and the intimation then given 
that your Lordship looked to the expression of the public feeling of this great country. 

That intimation met with an immediate and warm response throughout the length 
and breadth of the land : and the Undersigned had confidently hoped that the step 
subsequently taken by your Lordship, and so fully warranted and supported by the 
strong manifestations of public feeling in this country, would have been in time to pre- 
vent such a terrible consummation as has, at length, but so suddenly, befallen the un- 
equal though so long maintained struggle of the Hungarian nation against the united 
and most desperate efforts of Austria and Russia. 

However deeply the Undersigned feel the blow which has, by this consummation, 
been struck at the Liberties of Europe, and at Free Institutions throughout the world] 
—and however important they may estimate the accompanying loss of great commercial 
opportunities, and the crippling, directly and indirectly, of existing commercial rela- 
tions,— they feel that it would be improper to press these matters now pmm your Lord- 
ship's attention. FTJNGATl T AN REFTRENCE LiBSAB t 

the ^mi ^ NG ^ ESS 

t HEW YORK, N, Y, \ 






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(ReDroduced from pamphlet of the same title 
and published b^Nungarian Bulletin) 

- Petofi ter 5, Budapest -